Orthogenesis

Orthogenesis

Orthogenesis - The Daily Concept
Orthogenesis – The Daily Concept

The concept of orthogenesis is similar to a concept that I wrote about in a previous post, the concept of Directed Mutagenesis. Basically, orthogenesis is a hypothesis that organisms have an innate ability to evolve in a certain direction, towards a certain goal (teleology). While this theory was popular at the end of the nineteenth century among biologists like Jean-Baptist Lamarck, nowadays though, the consensus is that evolution is not guided in any way, that mutations occur randomly.

However, the evolution of some features is indeed facilitated by genes (theory of facilitated variation), for example, different species of the Heliconius butterfly independently evolved similar wing patterns.

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100 Days to Run a Marathon Challenge: Done!

So I finally managed to do a marathon. About three weeks earlier before the deadline, 26 of June. The summer is here and it’s getting hotter and hotter, hence my decision to do it as soon as possible to avoid the summer heat. It was an interesting road to this point, back in March when I started day 1 of this challenge and did my first run it was cold, there was ice and snow outside, the next day the snow started melting, there were puddles everywhere but I went for a run anyway, needles to say, I soaked my running shoes and my socks with water. Since then I’ve run through cold, snow, ice, puddles of water, mud, rain and heat. And it seems like this journey took me through all the seasons and through more time than some seventy-something days.

100 Days to Run a Marathon Challenge
100 Days to Run a Marathon Challenge

My first marathon was hard, no doubt about it, when I started to train for it I had some legitimate doubts that I can finish it. More about my limitations in one of the posts that I’ve written. The last third bit of the marathon was the hardest because by then I developed blisters at both of my feet and they got increasingly painful. Hence, I had to walk most of the last twelve kilometers. My socks got soaking wet from all the perspiration and this in turn made my feet start to move against the shoes and all that friction caused some painful blisters on the soles of my feet.

The time? A little bit more than six hours. I estimated that it would take me about 5-6 hours to do it. If I hadn’t developed the blisters than I would have had a better time but time wasn’t really a preoccupation for me, the important thing was to finish the marathon.

The weather today was quite good, it was cloudy, this kept the temperature down, a few sporadic droplets of rain came down, around 11 AM the clouds began to scatter and this led to some increase in temperature, but all in all it was a pretty good day for running today.

Other related posts:

The 100 Days to Run a Marathon Challenge

Day 50 of the 100 Days to Run a Marathon Challenge

Chaos Theory

Chaos Theory

Chaos Theory - The Daily Concept
Chaos Theory – The Daily Concept

The essence of the chaos theory can be summarized in the following quote by Edward Lorenz:

Chaos: When the present determines the future, but the approximate present does not approximately determine the future.

In some cases deterministic systems are unpredictable due to the element of chaos and small differences in initial conditions can produce widely diverging outcomes: for example, the butterfly effect, a butterfly flapping its wings in Africa can cause a hurricane in Texas.

Chaos behavior appears in many natural systems such as weather and climate.

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Divided Consciousness

Divided Consciousness

Divided Consciousness - The Daily Concept
Divided Consciousness – The Daily Concept

Carl Jung said in 1935 that “The so-called unity of consciousness is an illusion… we like to think that we are one but we are not.” Later on, Ernest Hilgard believed that during hypnosis, consciousness can be split into distinct components. Hilgard’s bimodal consciousness has a receptive mode and an active mode.

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Krogh’s Principle

Krogh’s Principle

Krogh's Principle - The Daily Concept
Krogh’s Principle – The Daily Concept

This principle is important to the disciplines of biology that rely on the comparative model and states that for a large number of “problems” there will be some animal of choice on which it can be conveniently studied. Organisms use similar neural algorithms, behaviors and even structures to accomplish similar tasks. For example, in order to understand how the nervous system might localize objects using sound, a researcher can study the barn owl.

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